Answers to Your Questions
Is John 14:1-3 a rapture passage? Since it is directed to the disciples, is it also directed to the future church?
The answer is a big fat yes on both accounts. It is a primitive rapture passage. By primitive I mean it does not give full details about the rapture of the church saints. But it does describe a return of Christ to gather His own to Himself back to heaven. Clearly, it is not about His return to earth to reign and rule in the Holy Land.
The rapture of the church is indeed a mystery in that (1) it was not mentioned in the OT, and (2) God has given us no clue as to when it may happen.
Of course, it is a fact that He has not come yet, nor did He return to carry the disciples away. They would enter into the church dispensation and die as martyrs. (We believe all but John died as martyrs by or before 70 AD.) But Christ will come someday for a certain generation of church saints who will not experience death but will be caught away and transformed with new immortal bodies (1 Thess. 4:13-18).
The disciples could have been taken in the rapture, but they were not! Paul even saw himself as possible being raptured but he was not! The time of the rapture is only in the mind of the Lord.
Thanks for asking,
Mal Couch, Ph.D., Th.D.